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124 Ways Sugar Can Destroy Your Health

I have always been familiar with the destructive consequences of sugar, in all its forms, but seeing them all laid out in this article from nancyappleton.com, really drove the point home: sugar is indeed poison and should be kept out of your body and the body of your children!

The following is a listing of some of sugar's metabolic consequences from a variety of medical journals and other scientific publications.

1. Sugar can suppress the immune system
2. Sugar upsets the mineral relationships in the body
3. Sugar can cause hyperactivity, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and crankiness in children
4. Sugar can produce a significant rise in triglycerides
5. Sugar contributes to the reduction in defense against bacterial infection (infectious diseases)
6. Sugar causes a loss of tissue elasticity and function, the more sugar you eat the more elasticity and function you loose
7. Sugar reduces high density lipoproteins
8. Sugar leads to chromium deficiency
9. Sugar leads to cancer of the breast, ovaries, prostrate, and rectum
10. Sugar can increase fasting levels of glucose
11. Sugar causes copper deficiency
12. Sugar interferes with absorption of calcium and magnesium
13. Sugar can weaken eyesight
14. Sugar raises the level of a neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine
15. Sugar can cause hypoglycemia
16. Sugar can produce an acidic digestive tract
17. Sugar can cause a rapid rise of adrenaline levels in children
18. Sugar malabsorption is frequent in patients with functional bowel disease
19. Sugar can cause premature aging
20. Sugar can lead to alcoholism
21. Sugar can cause tooth decay
22. Sugar contributes to obesity
23. High intake of sugar increases the risk of Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis
24. Sugar can cause changes frequently found in person with gastric or duodenal ulcers
25. Sugar can cause arthritis
26. Sugar can cause asthma
27. Sugar greatly assists the uncontrolled growth of Candida Albicans (yeast infections)
28. Sugar can cause gallstones
29. Sugar can cause heart disease
30. Sugar can cause appendicitis
31. Sugar can cause multiple sclerosis
32. Sugar can cause hemorrhoids
33. Sugar can cause varicose veins
34. Sugar can elevate glucose and insulin responses in oral contraceptive users
35. Sugar can lead to periodontal disease
36. Sugar can contribute to osteoporosis
37. Sugar contributes to saliva acidity
38. Sugar can cause a decrease in insulin sensitivity
39. Sugar can lower the amount of Vitamin E in the blood
40. Sugar can decrease growth hormone
41. Sugar can increase cholesterol
42. Sugar can increase the systolic blood pressure
43. Sugar can cause drowsiness and decreased activity in children
44. High sugar intake increases advanced glycation end products (AGEs)(Sugar bound non- enzymatically to protein)
45. Sugar can interfere with the absorption of protein
46. Sugar causes food allergies
47. Sugar can contribute to diabetes
48. Sugar can cause toxemia during pregnancy
49. Sugar can contribute to eczema in children
50. Sugar can cause cardiovascular disease
51. Sugar can impair the structure of DNA
52. Sugar can change the structure of protein
53. Sugar can make our skin age by changing the structure of collagen
54. Sugar can cause cataracts
55. Sugar can cause emphysema
56. Sugar can cause atherosclerosis
57. Sugar can promote an elevation of low density lipoproteins (LDL)
58. High sugar intake can impair the physiological homeostasis of many systems in the body
59. Sugar lowers the enzymes ability to function
60. Sugar intake is higher in people with Parkinson's disease
61. Sugar can cause a permanent altering the way the proteins act in the body
62. Sugar can increase the size of the liver by making the liver cells divide
63. Sugar can increase the amount of liver fat
64. Sugar can increase kidney size and produce pathological changes in the kidney
65. Sugar can damage the pancreas
66. Sugar can increase the body's fluid retention
67. Sugar is enemy #1 of the bowel movement
68. Sugar can cause myopia (nearsightedness)
69. Sugar can compromise the lining of the capillaries
70. Sugar can make the tendons more brittle
71. Sugar can cause headaches, including migraine
72. Sugar plays a role in pancreatic cancer in women
73. Sugar can adversely affect school children's grades and cause learning disorders
74. Sugar can cause an increase in delta, alpha, and theta brain waves
75. Sugar can cause depression
76. Sugar increases the risk of gastric cancer
77. Sugar and cause dyspepsia (indigestion)
78. Sugar can increase your risk of getting gout
79. Sugar can increase the levels of glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test over the ingestion of complex carbohydrates
80. Sugar can increase the insulin responses in humans consuming high-sugar diets compared to low sugar diets
81. High refined sugar diet reduces learning capacity
82. Sugar can cause less effective functioning of two blood proteins, albumin, and lipoproteins, which may reduce the body's ability to handle fat and cholesterol
83. Sugar can contribute to Alzheimer's disease
84. Sugar can cause platelet adhesiveness
85. Sugar can cause hormonal imbalance; some hormones become underactive and others become overactive
86. Sugar can lead to the formation of kidney stones
87. Sugar can lead to the hypothalamus to become highly sensitive to a large variety of stimuli
88. Sugar can lead to dizziness
89. Diets high in sugar can cause free radicals and oxidative stress
90. High sucrose diets of subjects with peripheral vascular disease significantly increases platelet adhesion
91. High sugar diet can lead to biliary tract cancer
92. Sugar feeds cancer
93. High sugar consumption of pregnant adolescents is associated with a twofold increased risk for delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant
94. High sugar consumption can lead to substantial decrease in gestation duration among adolescents
95. Sugar slows food's travel time through the gastrointestinal tract
96. Sugar increases the concentration of bile acids in stools and bacterial enzymes in the colon
97. Sugar increases estradiol (the most potent form of naturally occurring estrogen) in men
98. Sugar combines and destroys phosphatase, an enzyme, which makes the process of digestion more difficult
99. Sugar can be a risk factor of gallbladder cancer
100. Sugar is an addictive substance
101. Sugar can be intoxicating, similar to alcohol
102. Sugar can exacerbate PMS
103. Sugar given to premature babies can affect the amount of carbon dioxide they produce
104. Decrease in sugar intake can increase emotional stability
105. The body changes sugar into 2 to 5 times more fat in the bloodstream than it does starch
106. The rapid absorption of sugar promotes excessive food intake in obese subjects
107. Sugar can worsen the symptoms of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
108. Sugar adversely affects urinary electrolyte composition
109. Sugar can slow down the ability of the adrenal glands to function
110. Sugar has the potential of inducing abnormal metabolic processes in a normal healthy individual and to promote chronic degenerative diseases
111. I.Vs (intravenous feedings) of sugar water can cut off oxygen to the brain
112. High sucrose intake could be an important risk factor in lung cancer
113. Sugar increases the risk of polio
114. High sugar intake can cause epileptic seizures
115. Sugar causes high blood pressure in obese people
116. In Intensive Care Units: Limiting sugar saves lives
117. Sugar may induce cell death
118. Sugar may impair the physiological homeostasis of many systems in living organisms
119. In juvenile rehabilitation camps, when children were put on a low sugar diet, there was a 44% drop in antisocial behavior
120. Sugar can cause gastric cancer
121. Sugar dehydrates newborns
122. Sugar can cause gum disease
123. Sugar increases the estradiol in young men
124. Sugar can cause low birth weight babies


References:

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•  Couzy, F., et al."Nutritional Implications of the Interaction Minerals," Progressive Food and Nutrition Science 17;1933:65-87.

•  Goldman, J., et al. Behavioral Effects of Sucrose on Preschool Children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.1986;14(4):565_577.

•  Scanto, S. and Yudkin, J. The Effect of Dietary Sucrose on Blood Lipids, Serum Insulin, Platelet Adhesiveness and Body Weight in Human Volunteers, Postgraduate Medicine Journal. 1969;45:602_607.

•  Ringsdorf, W., Cheraskin, E. and Ramsay R. Sucrose,Neutrophilic Phagocytosis and Resistance to Disease, Dental Survey. 1976;52(12):46_48.

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•  Takahashi, E., Tohoku University School of Medicine, Wholistic Health Digest. October 1982:41:00

•  Kelsay, J., et al. Diets High in Glucose or Sucrose and Young Women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1974;27:926_936. Thomas, B. J., et al. Relation of Habitual Diet to Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentration and the Insulin Response to Oral Glucose, Human Nutrition Clinical Nutrition. 1983; 36C(1):49_51.

•  Fields, M.., et al. Effect of Copper Deficiency on Metabolism and Mortality in Rats Fed Sucrose or Starch Diets, Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1983;113:1335_1345.

•  Lemann, J. Evidence that Glucose Ingestion Inhibits Net Renal Tubular Reabsorption of Calcium and Magnesium. Journal Of Clinical Nutrition. 1976 ;70:236_245.

•  Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica. Mar 2002;48;25. Taub, H. Ed. Sugar Weakens Eyesight, VM NEWSLETTER;May 1986:06:00

•  Sugar, White Flour Withdrawal Produces Chemical Response. The Addiction Letter .Jul 1992:04:00

•  Dufty, William. Sugar Blues. (New York:Warner Books, 1975).

•  Ibid.

•  Jones, T. W., et al. Enhanced Adrenomedullary Response and Increased Susceptibility to Neuroglygopenia: Mechanisms Underlying the Adverse Effect of Sugar Ingestion in Children. Journal of Pediatrics. Feb 1995;126:171-7.

•  Ibid.

•  Lee, A. T.and Cerami A. The Role of Glycation in Aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Science.1992;663:63-70.

•  Abrahamson, E. and Peget, A.. Body, Mind and Sugar. ( New York : Avon ,1977.}

•  Glinsmann, W., Irausquin, H., and Youngmee, K. Evaluation of Health Aspects of Sugar Contained in Carbohydrate Sweeteners. F. D. A. Report of Sugars Task Force. 1986:39:00 Makinen K.K.,et al. A Descriptive Report of the Effects of a 16_month Xylitol Chewing_gum Programme Subsequent to a 40_month Sucrose Gum Programme. Caries Research. 1998; 32(2)107_12.

•  Keen, H., et al. Nutrient Intake, Adiposity, and Diabetes. British Medical Journal. 1989; 1:00 655_658

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•  Yudkin, J. New York : Sweet and Dangerous.:Bantam Books:1974: 129

•  Darlington, L., Ramsey, N. W. and Mansfield, J. R. Placebo_Controlled, Blind Study of Dietary Manipulation Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lancet. Feb 1986;8475(1):236_238.

•  Powers, L. Sensitivity: You React to What You Eat. Los Angeles Times. (Feb. 12, 1985). Cheng, J., et al. Preliminary Clinical Study on the Correlation Between Allergic Rhinitis and Food Factors. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi Aug 2002;16(8):393-396.

•  Crook, W. J. The Yeast Connection. (TN:Professional Books, 1984)..

•  Heaton, K. The Sweet Road to Gallstones. British Medical Journal. Apr 14, 1984; 288:00:00 1103_1104. Misciagna, G., et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;69:120-126.

•  Yudkin, J. Sugar Consumption and Myocardial Infarction. Lancet..Feb 6, 1971:1(7693):296-297. Suadicani, P., et al. Adverse Effects of Risk of Ishaemic Heart Disease of Adding Sugar to Hot Beverages in Hypertensives Using Diuretics. Blood Pressure. Mar 1996;5(2):91-71.

•  Cleave, T. The Saccharine Disease. (New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1974).

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•  Cleave, T. The Saccharine Disease. (New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1974.)

•  Cleave, T. and Campbell, G. (Bristol, England:Diabetes, Coronary Thrombosis and the Saccharine Disease: John Wrightand Sons, 1960).

•  Behall, K. Influ ence of Estrogen Content of Oral Contraceptives and Consumption of Sucrose on Blood Parameters. Disease Abstracts International. 1982;431437.

•  Glinsmann, W., Irausquin, H., and K. Youngmee. Evaluation of Health Aspects of Sugar Contained in Carbohydrate Sweeteners. F. D. A. Report of Sugars Task Force.1986;39:36_38.

•  Tjäderhane, L. and Larmas, M. A High Sucrose Diet Decreases the Mechanical Strength of Bones in Growing Rats. Journal of Nutrition. 1998:128:1807_1810.

•  Appleton , N. New York : Healthy Bones. Avery Penguin Putnam:1989.

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•  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Aug 2000

•  Gardner, L. and Reiser, S. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate on Fasting Levels of Human Growth Hormone and Cortisol. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1982;169:36_40.

•  Reiser, S. Effects of Dietary Sugars on Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Heart Disease. Nutritional Health. 1985;203_216.

•  Hodges, R., and Rebello, T. Carbohydrates and Blood Pressure. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1983:98:838_841.

•  Behar, D., et al. Sugar Challenge Testing with Children Considered Behaviorally Sugar Reactive. Nutritional Behavior. 1984;1:277_288.

•  Furth , A. and Harding, J. Why Sugar Is Bad For You. New Scientist. Sep 23, 1989;44.

•  Simmons, J. Is The Sand of Time Sugar? LONGEVITY. June 1990:00:00 49_53.

•  Appleton , N. New York : LICK THE SUGAR HABIT. Avery Penguin Putnam:1988. allergies

•  Sucrose Induces Diabetes in Cat. Federal Protocol. 1974;6(97). diabetes

•  Cleave, T.:The Saccharine Disease: (New Canaan Ct: Keats Publishing, Inc., 1974).131.

•  Ibid. 132

•  Vaccaro O., Ruth, K. J. and Stamler J. Relationship of Postload Plasma Glucose to Mortality with 19_yr Follow_up. Diabetes Care. Oct 15,1992;10:328_334. Tominaga, M., et al, Impaired Glucose Tolerance Is a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease, but Not Fasting Glucose. Diabetes Care. 1999:2(6):920-924.

•  Lee, A. T. and Cerami, A. Modifications of Proteins and Nucleic Acids by Reducing Sugars: Possible Role in Aging. Handbook of the Biology of Aging. ( New York : Academic Press, 1990.).

•  Monnier, V. M. Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process. Journal of Gerontology 1990:45(4 ):105_110.

•  Dyer, D. G., et al. Accumulation of Maillard Reaction Products in Skin Collagen in Diabetes and Aging. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1993:93(6):421_22.

•  Veromann, S.et al."Dietary Sugar and Salt Represent Real Risk Factors for Cataract Development." Ophthalmologica. 2003 Jul-Aug;217(4):302-307.

•  Monnier, V. M. Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process. Journal of Gerontology. 1990:45(4):105_110.

•  Pamplona , R., et al. Mechanisms of Glycation in Atherogenesis. Medical Hypotheses . 1990:00:00 174_181.

•  Lewis, G. F. and Steiner, G. Acute Effects of Insulin in the Control of Vldl Production in Humans. Implications for Theinsulin-resistant State . Diabetes Care. 1996 Apr;19(4):390-3 R. Pamplona, M. .J., et al. Mechanisms of Glycation in Atherogenesis. Medical Hypotheses. 1990;40:174-181.

•  Ceriello, A. Oxidative Stress and Glycemic Regulation. Metabolism. Feb 2000;49(2 Suppl 1):27-29.

•  Appleton, Nancy . New York ; Lick the Sugar Habit. Avery Penguin Putnam, 1988 enzymes

•  Hellenbrand, W. Diet and Parkinson's Disease. A Possible Role for the Past Intake of Specific Nutrients. Results from a Self-administered Food-frequency Questionnaire in a Case-control Study. Neurology. Sep 1996;47(3):644-650. 61 Cerami, A., Vlassara, H., and Brownlee, M. Glucose and Aging. Scientific American. May 1987:00:00 90

•  Goulart, F. S. Are You Sugar Smart? American Fitness. March_April 1991:00:00 34_38.

•  Ibid.

•  Yudkin, J., Kang, S. and Bruckdorfer, K. Effects of High Dietary Sugar. British Journal of Medicine. Nov 22, 1980;1396.

•  Goulart, F. S. Are You Sugar Smart? American Fitness. March_April 1991:00:00 34_38. Milwakuee , WI ,: damage pancreas

•  Ibid. fluid retention

•  Ibid. bowel movement

•  Ibid. nearsightedness

•  Ibid. compromise the lining of the capillaries

•  Nash, J. Health Contenders. Essence. Jan 1992; 23:00 79_81.

•  Grand, E. Food Allergies and Migraine.Lancet. 1979:1:955_959.

•  Michaud, D. Dietary Sugar, Glycemic Load, and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in a Prospective Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. Sep 4, 2002 ;94(17):1293-300.

•  Schauss, A. Diet, Crime and Delinquency. (Berkley Ca; Parker House, 1981.)

•  Christensen, L. The Role of Caffeine and Sugar in Depression. Nutrition Report. Mar 1991;9(3):17-24.

•  Ibid.

•  Cornee, J., et al. A Case-control Study of Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Factors in Marseille , France , European Journal of Epidemiology. 1995;11:55-65.

•  Yudkin, J. Sweet and Dangerous.(New York:Bantam Books,1974) 129

•  Ibid, 44

•  Reiser, S., et al. Effects of Sugars on Indices on Glucose Tolerance in Humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1986:43;151-159.

•  Reiser,S., et al. Effects of Sugars on Indices on Glucose Tolerance in Humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1986;43:151-159.

•  Molteni, R, et al. A High-fat, Refined Sugar Diet Reduces Hippocampal Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, Neuronal Plasticity, and Learning. NeuroScience. 2002;112(4):803-814.

•  Monnier, V., Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process. Journal of Gerontology. 1990;45:105-111.

•  Frey, J. Is There Sugar in the Alzheimer's Disease? Annales De Biologie Clinique. 2001; 59 (3):253-257.

•  Yudkin, J. Metabolic Changes Induced by Sugar in Relation to Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetes. Nutrition and Health. 1987;5(1-2):5-8.

•  Ibid.

•  Blacklock, N. J., Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone. Nutrition and Health. 1987;5(1-2):9- Curhan, G., et al. Beverage Use and Risk for Kidney Stones in Women. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1998:28:534-340.

•  Journal of Advanced Medicine. 1994;7(1):51-58.

•  Ibid

•  Ceriello, A. Oxidative Stress and Glycemic Regulation. Metabolism. Feb 2000;49(2 Suppl 1):27-29.

•  Postgraduate Medicine.Sept 1969:45:602-07.

•  Moerman, C. J., et al. Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiology of Biliary Tract Cancer. International Journal of Epidemiology . Ap 1993;.2(2):207-214.

•  Quillin, Patrick, Cancer's Sweet Tooth, Nutrition Science News. Ap 2000 Rothkopf, M.. Nutrition. July/Aug 1990;6(4).

•  Lenders, C. M. Gestational Age and Infant Size at Birth Are Associated with Dietary Intake among Pregnant Adolescents. Journal of Nutrition. Jun 1997;1113- 1117

•  Ibid.

•  Bostick, R. M., et al. Sugar, Meat.and Fat Intake and Non-dietary Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Incidence in Iowa Women. Cancer Causes & Control. 1994:05:00 :38-53.

•  Ibid. Kruis, W., et al. Effects of Diets Low and High in Refined Sugars on Gut Transit, Bile Acid Metabolism and Bacterial Fermentation. Gut. 1991;32:367-370. Ludwig, D. S., et al. High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating, And Obesity. Pediatrics. Mar 1999;103(3):26-32.

•  Yudkin, J and Eisa, O. Dietary Sucrose and Oestradiol Concentration in Young Men. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 1988:32(2):53-55.

•  Lee, A. T. and Cerami A. The Role of Glycation in Aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Science. 1992; 663:63-70.

•  Moerman, C., et al."Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiology of Biliary Tract Cancer." International Journal of Epidemiology. Ap 1993; 22(2):207-214.

•  Sugar, White Flour Withdrawal Produces Chemical Response. The Addiction Letter. Jul 1992:04:00 Colantuoni, C., et al. Evidence That Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake Causes Endogenous Opioid Dependence. Obes Res. Jun 2002 ;10(6):478-488. Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Society, Toronto , June 17, 2001 www.mercola.com/2001/jun/30/sugar.htm

•  Ibid.

•  The Edell Health Letter. Sept 1991;7:1.

•  Sunehag, A. L., et al. Gluconeogenesis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition Diabetes. 1999 ;48 7991_800.

•  Christensen L., et al. Impact of A Dietary Change on Emotional Distress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology .1985;94(4):565_79.

•  Nutrition Health Review. Fall 85 changes sugar into fat faster than fat

•  Ludwig, D. S., et al. High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating and Obesity. Pediatrics. March 1999;103(3):26-32.

•  Pediatrics Research. 1995;38(4):539-542. Berdonces, J. L. Attention Deficit and Infantile Hyperactivity. Rev Enferm. Jan 2001;4(1)11-4

•  Blacklock, N. J. Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone. Nutrition Health. 1987;5(1 & 2):9-17.

•  Lechin, F., et al. Effects of an Oral Glucose Load on Plasma Neurotransmitters in Humans. Neurophychobiology. 1992;26(1-2):4-11.

•  Fields, M. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Aug 1998;17(4):317_321.

•  Arieff, A. I. Veterans Administration Medical Center in San Francisco . San Jose Mercury; June 12/86. IVs of sugar water can cut off oxygen to the brain.

•  De Stefani, E."Dietary Sugar and Lung Cancer: a Case_control Study in Uruguay ." Nutrition and Cancer. 1998;31(2):132_7.

•  Sandler, Benjamin P. Diet Prevents Polio. Milwakuee , WI ,:The Lee Foundation for for Nutritional Research, 1951

•  Murphy, Patricia. The Role of Sugar in Epileptic Seizures. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. May, 2001 Murphy Is Editor of Epilepsy Wellness Newsletter, 1462 West 5th Ave. , Eugene , Oregon 97402

•  Stern, N. & Tuck, M. Pathogenesis of Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Mellitus, a Fundamental and Clinical Test. 2nd Edition, ( PhiladelphiA ; A:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000)943-957.

•  Christansen, D. Critical Care: Sugar Limit Saves Lives. Science News. June 30, 2001; 159:404.

•  Donnini, D. et al. Glucose May Induce Cell Death through a Free Radical-mediated Mechanism.Biochem Biohhys Res Commun. Feb 15, 1996:219(2):412-417.

•  Ceriello, A. Oxicative Stress and Glycemic Regulation. Metabolism. Feb 2000;49(Suppl I):27-29.

•  Schoenthaler, S. The Los Angeles Probation Department Diet-Behavior Program: Am Empirical Analysis of Six Institutional Settings. Int J Biosocial Res 5(2):88-89.

•  Cornee, J., et al. A Case-control Study of Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Factors in Marseille , France . European Journal of Epidemiology 11 (1995):55-65.

•  Gluconeogenesis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition. Diabetes. 1999 Apr;48(4):791-800.

•  Glinsmann, W., et al. Evaluation of Health Aspects of Sugar Contained in Carbohydrate Sweeteners." FDA Report of Sugars Task Force -1986 39 123 Yudkin, J. and Eisa, O. Dietary Sucrose and Oestradiol Concentration in Young Men. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 1988;32(2):53-5.

•  Lenders, C. M. Gestational Age and Infant Size at Birth Are Associated with Dietary Intake Among Pregnant Adolescents. Journal of Nutrition 128 (1998):1807-1810



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